Policies on Skating:
General Guidelines and Recommendations
J. Scott Osberg
Robert A. Brubaker
December 8, 2000
As the fastest growing sport in the 1990s, inline
skating has moved into mainstream society. Like bicycles,
skates are designed for efficiency and the designs continue to
improve. Around the world, increasing numbers of people are
skating for recreation and transportation. Evidence of the growth in
skating is seen in skate sales figures, estimates of the number of
skaters, the infusion of skating into popular culture, and in the
growth of police skate patrols. Skating is good for health, fitness,
overall quality of life, and it is relatively safe. Skating also
provides a transportation option that is non-polluting and does not
add to traffic congestion. Due to the incredible growth in the number
of skaters, some jurisdictions are beginning to grapple with how to
update their skate policies. Currently skaters are denied access to
public infrastructures such as streets and parks and sometimes fined
when caught disobeying the rules. This is often seen as unreasonable
by skaters and police alike. This paper provides guidelines and
recommendations on how to incorporate skating into the transportation
This paper is about street skating, or skating for
transportation; street skating is defined "in the literal sense;
i.e., getting about town on one’s skates. It does not refer to curb
grinding and stair bashing" (
Skatecity 1999). This paper demonstrates that
skating is a viable mode of transportation and offers general
guidelines and recommendations on how to begin incorporating skaters
into the transportation mix. Given the limited objectives of this
paper, much additional work will still be needed to identify specific
facility requirements for skaters, to develop model facility design
guidelines, and to clarify the legal status of skating.
Skates are here to stay. There has been a dramatic
increase in skate sales in many parts of the world, from Sydney to
Paris to New York City. In the future, there will be more skaters, not
fewer. In the United States, skate participants have increased from
3.1 million in 1989 to 29.1 million in 1997 (1998 American Sports
Data indicate that skates are not used merely for
recreation. Rather, commuting, visiting, and shopping are routinely
done on skates according to survey data http://www.aaafts.org/text/research/skatetransport.htm).
Stories of skate commuters are easy to find on the Internet and skate
commuters are easy to spot, often skating at rush hour with backpacks.
No transportation mode is risk-free and skating
injuries and deaths do occur. According to Sherker and Cassell (1999),
in the United States 43 inline skaters died from January 1992 to
August 1996, a period of just under 5 years. Comparing just the four
years from 1992 to 1995, there were 136,063 fatalities among motor
vehicle occupants, 3,174 cyclist deaths, and 22,271 pedestrian deaths
(Traffic Safety Facts, 1998). Ironically, because skate deaths are so
rare, they tend to attract a disproportionate amount of press
attention compared to deaths of motorists, cyclists, or pedestrians.
Although skating is not a risk-free activity, skating is a good way to
keep healthy and fit.
Because of the variety of terrains you can encounter
when outdoor skating--hills, turns, and flats--blading has become one
of the more complete exercises. It burns up to 600 calories per hour,
and works the heart, lungs, and most of the muscle groups from your
abdominals and lower back on down (Rappelfeld 1992).
Like bicycles, skates have the potential of reducing
auto congestion and urban pollution. Here are a few examples of how
commuters use skates:
- Skates are portable and can be used depending on
weather and traffic. Some skaters take the skates out of the car
trunk and skate home when there are major traffic tie-ups
- Other skaters routinely use skates to get to
buses or trains and then use them again to get to the office on
the other end.
- Skaters with backpacks at rush hour are generally
traveling to or from work or school.
Skeptics who still doubt skating is a viable form of
transportation are urged to consider the growth in police skate
patrols. Police departments have discovered that, like bicycles,
skates can be effective vehicles for community policing. Detachable
blades allow police to skate at two to three times the speed of a
runner, detach the blades, and continue pursuit in boots. On routine
patrols police carry guns and radios and skates add 2-3 inches to
An online list shows the following cities have
police skate patrols: Antwerp, Amsterdam, Caracas, London, Paris, San
Juan, and Stockholm.
Here are some police skate patrols in the United
on Skates - Main Menu
This is the home page for the police skate page at
According to U.S. Secretary of Transportation,
Rodney Slater, the "greatest challenge is to build a
transportation system that is international in reach; intermodal in
form; intelligent in character; and inclusive in nature"
(Strategic Plan for Fiscal Years 1997-2002, http://www.dot.gov/hot/dotplan.html).
When new facilities are built, safe provisions need to be made for
bicyclists, pedestrians, wheelchair users, and skaters.
Local policymakers can try to stop the clock, but
it’s likely that skates will be used for transportation regardless
of public policy. In jurisdictions with unreasonable skate
restrictions, enforcement is difficult, because police and skaters
generally consider it to be a "victimless crime." A
Transportation Association of Canada (TAC) report concludes that
outlawing inline skating is not feasible (Allingham and MacKay 1997).
The TAC report provides a comprehensive discussion
of how skating fits in with other modes of transportation. It includes
a discussion of the operational characteristics of skates,
infrastructure needs, laws, perceptions of safety and more.
Researchers and policymakers who are grappling with where skates
belong are encouraged to obtain a copy of the TAC report, available at
Below are three fundamental guidelines to consider
when developing specific skate regulations.
- Policies and facility designs should maximize
skater choice and protect the safety of all road users.
Policies that maintain a balance between skater
freedom and the safety of all road users are likely to be
considered reasonable. Policies that are perceived as reasonable
are less likely to be violated and may be more enforceable.
When possible, skaters should be able to choose
between streets and sidewalks. Adult skaters need to be treated
(and must behave) as responsible travelers, capable of evaluating
the density of motor vehicle and pedestrian traffic and surface
conditions. When possible, skaters should be allowed to avoid
slick surfaces, cobblestone and heavy traffic (pedestrian or
motorized) and switch between streets and sidewalks as
Restricting skates to sidewalks should not be
the default policy because: it limits skater’s choice and
mobility; sidewalk design is not always conducive to skating; and
it may put pedestrians at risk. Like bicyclists, motorcyclists,
and large trucks, it is impractical to allow skaters on all
facilities. Skaters should be warned and provided with
alternatives to some streets, highways, underpasses, and bridges.
When overall safety requires skaters to skate on sidewalks,
skaters (like cyclists) must signal intentions, skate in control,
and yield to pedestrians.
- Skaters should be considered vehicle users.
Cyclists have fought to be considered vehicle
users, with many of the rights and responsibilities of motorists.
The mobility and safety of skaters requires a similar
classification. Adult skaters should definitely not be
considered "toy users" and told to skate against
traffic, as in Arlington, Virginia (see Appendix).
According to the International Inline Skating
Association (ISAA), skaters should: "Obey all traffic
regulations. When on skates, you should consider yourself to be
subject to the same obligations as a bicyclist or a driver of an
- Skaters should be considered "vulnerable
Like motorcyclists, pedestrians, and cyclists,
skaters are vulnerable road users. Motorists should treat skaters and
other vulnerable road users as fragile and potentially unpredictable.
Even skaters who wear helmets and pads are fragile compared to
steel-encased motorists. Motorists need to understand that road
debris, slick surfaces, and road design flaws can force these
vulnerable road users to make sudden movements.
The term "Vulnerable Road Users" is used
in Europe, Australia, and elsewhere to refer to pedestrians,
bicyclists, and motorcyclists. Usage of the term can be seen at these
Much needs to be done to bring skaters into the
transportation fold. Below are five steps toward including skating as
a valid mode of transportation.
- Model legal code is needed showing how to
incorporate skaters into the traffic mix.
This model legal code will detail the
practicalities of considering skaters to be vehicle users and
vulnerable road users. How do these abstractions translate into
how skaters share facilities with other users? Legal code might
discuss situations where skaters would not be allowed (e.g.,
Interstate highways), situations where accommodations for skaters
should be made (e.g., bridges), and penalties for breaking the
rules. Ideally, skate, pedestrian, cycling, and disability
organizations would work together to develop these legal codes.
Eventually this work would be incorporated into
the Uniform Vehicle Code and Model Traffic Ordinance (UVCMTO). The
mechanism for making changes in the UVCMTO is to petition the
National Committee on Uniform Traffic Laws and Ordinances
- Skate advocates and their allies need to get
skating on the agendas of transportation organizations.
The National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration (NHTSA) is a key target. NHTSA does a lot of work
on pedestrians and bicyclists; a venue for discussing skating
needs to be created. The Transportation Research Board is another
The Transportation Research Board (TRB) is a
unit of the National Research Council, a private, nonprofit
institution that is the principal operating agency of the National
Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The
Board's mission is to promote innovation and progress in
transportation by stimulating and conducting research,
facilitating the dissemination of information, and encouraging the
implementation of research results http://nationalacademies.org/trb/.
- Planners, engineers, and facility managers must
begin to consider skater needs in facility design and maintenance.
Pucher and Dijkstra (2000) demonstrate that the
European transportation system is safer than the U.S. system for
pedestrians, cyclists, and motorists. The paper offers valuable
insight on how U.S. transportation planners and policymakers can
begin to deal with non-motorized travelers, including skaters. The
Appendix of this paper also has links to a number of Web sites
with models for how to accommodate cyclists and pedestrians. The
U.S. can be made safer and more accessible for pedestrians,
bicyclists (Pucher and Dijkstra 2000), and skaters.
- Research is needed to identify model
skate-friendly designs for streets, paths, and sidewalks.
This work would examine engineering and human
factors related to skating (braking, speed, operating space
requirements) to identify compatible infrastructure designs (grade
and surface qualities). The TAC report (Allingham and MacKay 1997)
deals with this area and fragments are available online and in
scientific journals. A comprehensive review of the literature with
suggestions for future research is needed.
- Data are needed on skating exposure and injuries.
How many people are out skating for what purposes?
How often do people skate and how far? How much protective gear do
they wear? What types of injuries are occurring? What type of falls
account for most of the injuries? How prevalent are injuries caused by
crashes between skaters and pedestrians, cyclists, and motorists? What
are the trends in these variables over time? These surveillance data
are needed to identify emerging public safety issues, to understand
the impact of facility design and skate regulations on usage and
safety, and to understand how skates are being used for
Conclusion and Future Directions
Reasonable regulations that define and protect
skater rights and promote public safety are needed. Skaters, police,
motorists, pedestrians, wheel chair users, and bicyclists need to know
what to expect and how to behave toward each other. More work is
needed to outline specific ways skaters can be safely integrated into
the traffic mix. The Transportation Association of Canada report (Allingham
and MacKay 1997) provides an excellent discussion of some of these
details, and it should be consulted when taking these next steps. More
work is needed to identify specific engineering solutions and facility
design guidelines and to clarify the legal status of skating.
Allingham DI, MacKay D. In-line skating review:
Phase2 -- Final Report. Transportation Association of Canada. Ottawa,
Ontario, December 1997.
American Sports Data Inc. American Sports Analysis
Report. Hartsdale, NY: American Sports Data Inc. 1998.
Osberg JS, Faul S, Poole J, McHenry J. Paper
presented at the Transportation Research Board, 79th Annual
Meeting, January 10, 2000. Available at:
Pucher J and L Dijkstra. Making Walking and Cycling
Safer: Lessons from Europe. Transportation Quarterly,
Rappelfeld J. The Complete In-Line Skater: Basic and
Advanced Techniques, Exercises, and Equipment Tips for Fitness and
Recreation. St. Martin’s Griffin, New York, 1992.
Sherker S and Cassell E. Preventing In-Line Skating
Injuries: How Effective are the Countermeasures? Sports Medicine,
The New York City Inline Skating Guide, retrieved on May 13, 1999.
Traffic Safety Facts 1998. U.S. Department of
Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS
808 983, October 1999.
Uniform Vehicle Code and Model Traffic Ordinance.
National Committee on Uniform Traffic Laws and Ordinances, 107 S. West
Street, # 110 Alexandria, VA 22314, Phone: 800-807-5290, FAX
opinions and recommendations are those of the authors and are not
necessarily shared by their employers (AAA Foundation for Traffic
Safety and Department of Defense).
This appendix includes links to Web sites that
discuss how to promote non-motorized forms of transport and how to
keep travelers safe. Selected laws related to skates are also listed.
Responding to serious levels of urban pollution and
congestion, many European cities have found ways to encourage
non-motorized forms of transportation. This link shows some of these
Car Free Cities Policy Papers
As well as operating as a network for the exchange
of ideas, experience and expertise, Car Free Cities acts as political
voice for the promotion of a new mobility culture. The political
commitment of the members is represented by two key documents:
The network has also responded to a number of
communications and policy papers of the European Commission and
presented a number of position papers to the EU Council of Ministers:
Some resistance to skating as an intermodal
transportation link may come from those who fear skating in buildings,
on subway systems, etc. Some relevant products are already on the
- Clip-on skates allow skaters to detach the wheels
and enter buildings or hop on the subway.
- "Hyperwalks" is another product. They
fit between skate wheels so you can walk instead of skate. All
kinds of products are being developed to protect surfaces and
thereby open access to people with [protected] skates. This
product or something like it is essential for skates to be used as
one link in an intermodal transportation system.
Selected Skate Laws
In Virginia, skating is defined as "play"
and skaters are directed to skate against traffic, a dangerous
practice that is codified in law.
CODE County of ARLINGTON, VIRGINIA Codified
through Ord. No. 98-23,
adopted July 11, 1998. (Supplement No. 9, 7-98)
Chapter 14.2 MOTOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC*
ARTICLE I. MOTOR VEHICLE CODE
DIVISION 2. REGULATION OF TRAFFIC
Subdivision B. Protection of Pedestrians
§ 14.2-24. Playing on streets or highways; skating,
roller coasters, etc.; county manager may close streets for coasting,
(a) No person shall play on a highway or street in this County
than upon the sidewalks thereof. No person shall use on a highway or
street in said county, roller skates, coasters, or similar vehicles or
toys or other devices on wheels or runners (including sleds, except as
otherwise permitted in designated areas), except bicycles and
motorcycles. The county manager may, by placing of signs, signals, or
barriers, temporarily close streets or otherwise limit their use by
motor vehicles to the end that such streets may be used for parades,
sledding, street dances, coaster derbies and other activities of this
general nature. Operators of motor vehicles shall follow the
directions of such signs or signals. Other users of such closed or
limited area shall follow the directions posted.
(b) No person riding upon any bicycle, roller skates, toys, or
devices or wheels or runners shall attach the same or himself to any
vehicle upon a roadway.
The National Park Service has restrictions against
skating and US Park
police have stopped and lectured skaters in the Washington DC area.
Code of Federal Regulations Title 36, Volume 3, Parts 300 to
End Revised as of July 1, 1999
From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO
[CITE: 36CFR1002.20] [Page 218]
TITLE 36--PARKS, FORESTS, AND PUBLIC PROPERTY
CHAPTER X--PRESIDIO TRUST
PART 1002--RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND
RECREATION--Table of Contents
Sec. 1002.20 Skating, skateboards and similar
Using roller skates,
skateboards, roller skis, coasting vehicles, or similar devices is prohibited, except in designated
Below are some more state and local laws. Gordon
Sanders of The Pegasus Flyers Inline Skate Club compiled these laws.
They are available online at: http://www.pegasusflyers.org/law/statcity.htm.
City of Houston - Code of Ordinances
Section 45-16. Use of Coasters, Toy
Vehicles, and Similar Devices on Roadway.
No person riding in or by means of any
coaster, toy vehicle or similar vehicle, shall go upon any
roadway, except while crossing such roadway in accordance
with the pedestrian crossing regulations. These
provisions shall not apply to persons on roller skates.
(Code 1968, 46-22. Ord No. 90-1182, 1, 10-3-90)
City of The Dalles, Oregon
Section 11. Sleds or Skates on Streets
The use of rollerskates or in-line skates shall
be governed by the provisions of the following subparagraph:
Any person who uses rollerskates or
in-line skates to travel upon a public way or street, or
upon a sidewalk, shall comply with the rules and regulations
for the operation of bicycles set forth in
ORS S14.410 to S14.440, and S14.480, as now constituted.
A violation of these statutory provisions
shall be considered a violation of the City of The Dalles
Uniform Traffics Ordinance.
City of Minneapolis, MN
CODE OF ORDINANCES
Title 17 STREETS AND SIDEWALKS*
CHAPTER 427. IN GENERAL
427.300. Rollerskating and skateboarding.
(a) No person shall ride or propel
rollerskates or skateboards upon a public street, highway
or sidewalk, except in a prudent and careful manner and
unless such a person be capable of efficient control and
such rollerskates are operated with reasonable regard to
the safety of the operator and other persons upon the
streets, sidewalks and other public highways of the city.
(b) No person shall ride or propel rollerskates or
skateboards upon the Nicollet Mall, or any other public
plaza-like area regulated by the City of Minneapolis or
other governmental unit, except in connection with an
exhibition, commercial venture, organized play or similar
organized event authorized by permit from the city council
pursuant to Section 440.20 of the Minneapolis Code of
Ordinances or as authorized by the appropriate
(80-Or-303, § 1, 12-29-80; 83-Or-252, §
1, 10-14-83; 89-Or-093, § 1, 5-26-89)
The State of Wisconsin permits
inline skating on any street that is not a state
highway. State statutes also allow local jurisdictions to
regulate (i.e. prohibit) inline skating if they so desire.
340.01 (24m) "Inline skates"
means skates with wheels arranged singly in a tandem line
rather than in pairs.
340.01 (43m) "Play vehicle"
(a) Means a coaster, skate board,
roller skates, sled, toboggan, unicycle or toy vehicle
upon which a person may ride.
(b) Does not include inline skates.
346.94 Miscellaneous prohibited acts.
(17) Inline skates on roadway.
(a) A person riding upon inline
skates may go upon any roadway under the
jurisdiction of a local authority, subject to any
restrictions specified by municipal ordinance
enacted under s. 349.235.
(b) Any person riding upon inline skates upon
any roadway shall ride in a careful and prudent
manner and with due regard under the circumstances
for the safety of all persons using the roadway.
(c) Notwithstanding any other provision of this
subsection or s. 349.235, no person riding upon
inline skates may attach the inline skates or
himself or herself to any vehicle upon a roadway
or, except while crossing a roadway at a
crosswalk, go upon any roadway under the
jurisdiction of the department.
349.235 Authority to restrict use
of inline skates on roadway.
(1) The governing body of
any city, town, village or county may by
ordinance restrict the use of in line skates
on any roadway under its jurisdiction. No
ordinance may restrict any person from riding
upon inline skates while crossing a roadway at
(2) The department of natural resources may
promulgate rules designating roadways under
its jurisdiction upon which inline skates may
be used, except that no rule may permit a
person using inline skates to attach the
skates or himself or herself to any vehicle
upon a roadway.
New York City
19-176.1 Reckless operation
of roller skates, in-line skates and skateboards
a. For purposes of this
(1) The term
"in-line skate" shall
mean a manufactured or assembled
device consisting of an upper
portion that is intended to be
secured to a human foot, with a
frame or chassis attached along
the length of the bottom of such
upper portion, with such frame
or chassis holding two or more
wheels that are longitudinally
aligned and used to skate or
glide, by means of human foot
and leg power while having such
device attached to each such
foot or leg.
(2) The term
shall mean operating roller
skates, in-line skates or a
skateboard on a public street,
highway or sidewalk in such a
manner as to endanger the safety
or property of another.
(3) The term
"roller skate" shall
mean a manufactured or assembled
device consisting of a frame or
shoe having clamps or straps or
both for fastening, with a pair
of small wheels near the toe and
another pair at the heel mounted
or permanently attached thereto,
for skating or gliding by means
of human foot and leg power.
(4) The term
"sidewalk" shall mean
that portion of the street,
whether paved or unpaved,
between the curb lines or the
lateral lines of a roadway and
the adjacent property lines,
intended for the use of
pedestrians. Where it is not
clear which section is intended
for the use of pedestrians the
sidewalk will be deemed to be
that portion of the street
between the building line and
(5) The term
mean a device consisting of a
platform, usually curved upwards
at each end, to which are
mounted or permanently attached
two swiveling frames, each of
which is used to support and
guide a pair of small wheels,
which device glides or is
propelled by means of human foot
or leg power.
b. No person
shall engage in the reckless
operation of roller skates, in-line
skates or a skateboard.
c. A violation of
subdivision b of this section shall
be a traffic infraction and shall be
punishable in accordance with
section 1800 of the vehicle and
traffic law. Any person who is found
guilty of the reckless operation of
roller skates, in-line skates or a
skateboard shall be subject to a
fine of not less than fifty dollars
nor more than one hundred dollars.
d. The provisions
of this section shall be enforced by
the department, the police
department and the department of
parks and recreation.
New York State
Title VII. Article
34: Operation of bicycle and play
These laws apply to skating on
public roads, on private roads open
to public traffic, and on all bike
and skate trails.
have similar rights and duties as
are held by the driver of a motor
vehicle. In other words, skating
on public roads (excluding
expressways, interstates and certain
other roads) is legal but you
must honor all traffic laws (e.g.,
obey traffic lights, no wrong-way
may not attach yourself to any
vehicle in motion (i.e., no "skitching").
there is a bike/skate lane, you must
use it. If not, you must skate as
far to the right side of the
street as possible so as to not
interfere with traffic. If you are
skating in a group, you may not
skate more than two abreast. You
must skate single file if there is
other traffic which wishes to pass
may not carry any article or package
which would obstruct your view.
child under 14 must wear a helmet
when skating. This is a $50 offense,
the ticket being issued to the
skater's parent/guardian. When
skating at night, you must wear a
jacket or other clothing with
New Jersey State
Regulation of skateboarding, roller
1. The governing
body of any municipality may, by
ordinance, regulate the operation of
skateboards and roller skates upon
the roadways and public properties
under municipal jurisdiction;
provided, however, that no such
a. absolve any
person operating roller skates or a
skateboard upon a permitted roadway
of any of the duties applicable
to the operator of a bicycle
pursuant to Article 3 of chapter 4
of Title 39 of the Revised Statutes
and all supplements thereto, except
as to those provisions thereof which
by their nature can have no
b. prohibit any
person from operating a skateboard
upon any public roadway, except
those specifically designated by
For the purpose of
this section, "roller
skates" means a pair of devices
worn on the feet with a set of
wheels attached, regardless of the
number or placement of those wheels,
and used to glide or propel the user
over the ground.
Accommodation of roller skates,
skateboards not required.
2. Nothing in
P.L.1998, c.36 (C.39:4-10.10a et
seq.) or in P.L.1997, c.411
(C.39:4-10.5 et al.) shall obligate
the Commissioner of Transportation
to in any way maintain, plan, design
or construct roadways to accommodate
the operation of roller skates or
3. This act shall
take effect immediately.
Non-motorized wheeled vehicles in
A. A person may
not ride on or use any non-motorized
wheeled vehicle in a negligent
manner on any public street,
alley sidewalk or way in the city of
Annapolis. For purposes of this
section, a person is guilty of
negligent riding or using a
non-motorized wheeled vehicle if the
person rides or uses the
non-motorized wheeled vehicle in a
careless or imprudent manner that
endangers any property or the life,
safety or person of any
B. For the purpose
of this section, non-motorized
wheeled vehicle shall mean
skateboards, in-line skates,
rollerblades, bicycles, unicycles
and any other vehicle with one or
more wheel(s) that is propelled by
Violation; penalty. A violation of
any provision in this chapter shall
constitute a misdemeanor. Any person
convicted of violating any provision
in this chapter shall be fined fifty
dollars for each such violation.
Here are two more
laws sent by Kalinda Mathis of the
International Inline Skating
Bill NO. 970817
December 11, 1997
Section 1. City
Council makes the following
7. The Council
recognizes and strongly endorses the
importance of recreational
activities to the health and welfare
of the citizens of this City. Many
of these activities however,
including bicycling, skateboarding
and reckless skating should not be
conducted on the crowded public
sidewalks, particularly in light of
the vast and beautiful public
resources available in this City for
the Sidewalk prohibited. No person
(d) Ride a
scooter, roller skates or skateboard
on any public sidewalk.
prohibitions set forth in
subsections(2)©, (d), relating to
bicycles, scooters, roller skates
and skateboards, shall not apply to
any person under the age of six (6).
Nor shall it apply to anyone on
inline skates who is (a) involved in
a volunteer effort with the Inline
Town Watch Program affiliated with
the City of Philadelphia Police
Department, (b) participating in a
IISA (International Inline Skating
Association) sanctioned event. ©
skating in a controlled manner on
the public sidewalk so as to fit in
with the flow of pedestrians to and
from points of destination,
including but not limited to, places
of employment, and engaging in
commerce with businesses located
along the public sidewalks in this
THE DALLES, OREGON
The City Council
of The Dalles passed an ordinance
that equates in-line skates and
bicycles for purposes of
transportation. Here are applicable
sections from the ordinance, as well
as the cited bicycle ordinances:
Section 11. Sleds
or Skates on Streets
The use of
rollerskates or in-line skates shall
be governed by the provisions of the
Any person who
uses rollerskates or in-line skates
to travel upon a public way or
street, or upon a sidewalk, shall
comply with the rules and
regulations for the operation of
bicycles set forth in ORS 814.410 to
814.440, and 814.480, as now
constituted. A violation of these
statutory provisions shall be
considered a violation of the City
of The Dalles Uniform Traffics
Application of vehicle laws to
(1) Every person
riding a bicycle upon a public way
is subject to and has the same
rights and duties as the driver of
any other vehicle concerning
operating on highways, vehicle
equipment and abandoned vehicles,
Every person riding a bicycle upon a
public way is subject to the
provisions which by their very
nature can have no application.
(b) When otherwise specifically
provided under the vehicle code.
(2) Subject to the
provisions of subsection (1) of this
(a) A bicycle is
a vehicle for purposes of the
vehicle code; and
(b) When the term
"vehicle" is used the
term shall be deemed to be
applicable to bicycles.
(3) The provisions
of the vehicle code relating to the
operation of bicycles do not relieve
a bicyclist or motorist from the
duty to exercise due care.
operation of bicycle on
(1) A person
commits the offense of unsafe
operation of a bicycle on a sidewalk
if the person does any of the
(a) Operates the
bicycle so as to suddenly leave a
curb or other place of safety and
move into the path of a vehicle that
is so close as to constitute an
(b) Operates a
bicycle upon a sidewalk and does not
give an audible warning before
overtaking and passing a pedestrian
and does not yield the right of way
to all pedestrians on the sidewalk.
(c) Operates a
bicycle on a sidewalk in a careless
manner that endangers or would be
likely to endanger any person or
(d) Operates the
bicycle at a speed greater than an
ordinary walk when approaching or
entering a crosswalk, approaching or
crossing a driveway or crossing a
curb cut or pedestrian ramp and a
motor vehicle is approaching the
crosswalk, driveway, curb cut or
pedestrian ramp. This paragraph does
not require reduced speeds for
(A) At places on
sidewalks or other pedestrian ways
other than places where the path for
pedestrians or bicycle traffic
approaches or crosses that for motor
vehicle traffic; or
(B) When motor
vehicles are not present.
- Except as
otherwise specifically provided
by law, a bicyclist on a
sidewalk or in a crosswalk has
the same rights and duties as a
pedestrian on a sidewalk or in a
(3) The offense
described in this section, unsafe
operation of a bicycle on a
sidewalk, is a Class D traffic
- Failure to use
bicycle lane or path;
(1) Except as
provided in subsection (2) of this
section, a person commits the
offense of failure to use a bicycle
lane or path if the person operates
a bicycle on any portion of a
roadway that is not a bicycle lane
or bicycle path when a bicycle lane
or bicycle path is adjacent to or
near the roadway.
(2) A person is
not required to comply with this
section unless the state or local
authority with jurisdiction over the
roadway finds, after public hearing,
that the bicycle lane or bicycle
path is suitable for safe bicycle
use at reasonable rates of speed.
(3) The offense
described in this section, failure
to use a bicycle lane or path, is a
Class D traffic infraction.
- Improper use of
lanes; exceptions; penalty.
(1) A person
commits the offense of improper use
of lanes by a bicycle if the person
is operating a bicycle on a roadway
at less than the normal speed of
traffic using the roadway at that
time and place under the existing
conditions and the person does not
ride as close as practicable to the
right curb or edge of the roadway.
(2) A person is
not in violation of the offense
under this section if the person is
not operating a bicycle as close as
practicable to the right curb or
edge of the roadway under any of the
overtaking and passing another
bicycle or vehicle that is
proceeding in the same direction.
(b) When preparing
to execute a left turn.
reasonably necessary to avoid
hazardous conditions including, but
not limited to, fixed or moving
objects, parked or moving vehicles,
bicycles, pedestrians, animals,
surface hazards or other conditions
that make continued operation along
the right curb or edge unsafe or to
avoid unsafe operation in a lane on
the roadway that is too narrow for a
bicycle and vehicle to travel safely
side by side.
(d) When operating
within a city as near as practicable
to the left curb or edge of a
roadway that is designated to allow
traffic to move in only one
direction along the roadway. A
bicycle that is operated under this
paragraph is subject to the same
requirements and exceptions when
operating along the left curb or
edge as are applicable when a
bicycle is operating along the right
curb or edge of the roadway.
(e) When operating
a bicycle alongside not more than
one other bicycle as long as the
bicycles are both being operated
within a single lane and in a manner
that does not impede the normal and
reasonable movement of traffic.
(f) When operating
on a bicycle lane or bicycle path.
(3) The offense
described in this section, improper
use of lanes by a bicycle, is a
Class D traffic infraction.
- Failure to
signal turn; exceptions;
(1) A person
commits the offense of failure to
signal for a bicycle turn if the
person does any of the following:
(a) Stops a
bicycle the person is operating
without giving the appropriate hand
and arm signal continuously for at
least 100 feet before executing the
(b) Executes a
turn on a bicycle the person is
operating without giving the
appropriate hand and arm signal for
the turn for at least 100 feet
before executing the turn.
(c) Executes a
turn on a bicycle the person is
operating after having been stopped
without giving, while stopped, the
appropriate hand and arm signal for
(3) A person is
not in violation of the offense
under this section if the person is
operating a bicycle and does not
give the appropriate signal
continuously for a stop or turn
because circumstances require that
both hands be used to safely control
or operate the bicycle.
appropriate hand and arm signals for
indicating turns and stops under
this section are those provided for
other vehicles under this section
are those provided for other
vehicles under ORS 811.395 and
(5) The offense
described under this section,
failure to signal for a bicycle
turn, is a Class D traffic
vehicle clinging to another
(1) A person
commits the offense of nonmotorized
vehicle clinging to another vehicle
if the person is riding upon or
operating a bicycle, coaster, roller
skates, sled or toy vehicle and the
person clings to another vehicle
upon a roadway or attaches that
which the person is riding or
operating to any other vehicle upon
(2) The offense
described in this section,
nonmotorized vehicle clinging to
another vehicle, is a Class D